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Maritime Classics Harness Racing Stallion Name Video1989 July 30th R8 Truro Raceway $12,000 Exhibition Cup
Pokalsieger Europa League 1000 Maritime Classics Harness Racing Bonus erhalten. - Mehr AnsichtenItem no.
Sunday, June 24, Camstar Continues Strong Effort. Camstar has used a 2nd place finish on June 16th and most recently another win on June 23rd to continue his strong showing at the Hiawatha Horse Park summer meet.
That makes 3 wins and a 2nd from his last 4 starts at the Sarnia, ON oval. Jesuit missionary and Orientalist, most noted for his writings on the early history of the Society of Jesus in China; b.
Pietra Catella, Campo Basso, April 2, ; d. Rome, May 18, He entered the society in and studied theology at Woodstock College, Md.
During this period he edited the original Chinese classics together with a European vernacular commentary. He returned to Rome in as professor on the faculty of missiology at the Gregorian University, where he remained until his death.
His writings during this period dealt mainly with the contemporary political conditions in China and with the early history of the Jesuits in China.
His summary, the History of the Catholic Church in China [ Studia missionalia Rome 1 — 68], is considered the briefest and most authoritative statement on the matter.
Bibliography: r. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. December 23, Retrieved December 23, from Encyclopedia.
Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Read More News About United States Harness Racing International Harness Racing Standardbred Owners Association of New York Up And Quick Brandon Valvo Yonkers International Trot.
Next article:. Latest News. Make this country default. New Zealand. The Roman general Crassus led a large army, with inadequate cavalry and missile troops, to catastrophe against Parthian horse archers and cataphracts at the Battle of Carrhae.
The Persian king Darius the Great led a campaign against the mounted Scythians , who refused to engage in pitched battle; Darius conquered and occupied land but lost enough troops and supplies that he was compelled to withdraw.
Darius, however, kept the lands he had conquered. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the Persian general Mardonius used horse archers to attack and harass his opponents during the Battle of Plataea,  which was won by the Greeks.
Philip of Macedon scored an epic victory against the Scythians residing north of the Danube, killing their king, Ateas , and causing their kingdom to fall apart thereafter.
Later on, Alexander himself used mounted archers recruited among the Scythians and Dahae , during the Greek invasion of India. The Roman Empire and its military also had an extensive use of horse archers after their conflict with eastern armies that relied heavily on mounted archery in the 1st century BC.
They had regiments such as the Equites Sagittarii , who acted as Rome's horse archers in combat. Heavy horse archers, instead of skirmishing and hit-and-run tactics, formed in disciplined formations and units, sometimes intermixed with lancers as in Byzantine and Turkish armies, and shot as volleys instead of shooting as individuals.
The usual tactic was to first shoot five or six volleys at the enemy to weaken him and to disorganise them, and then charge.
Heavy horse archers often carried spears or lances for close combat, or formed mixed units with lancers. The Mongol armies and others included both heavy and light horse archers.
Heavy horse archers could usually outshoot their light counterparts, and because of the armour they wore, could better withstand return fire.
The Russian druzhina cavalry developed as a countermeasure to the Tatar light troops. Likewise, the Turkish timariots and qapikulu were often as heavily armoured as Western knights, and could match the Hungarian, Albanian and Mongol horse archers.
Vietnam's mounted archers were first recorded in the 11th century. They later effectively participated in the Invasion of Song China — and caused heavy casualties to the Song army.
German and Scandinavian medieval armies made extensive use of mounted crossbowmen. They would act not only as scouts and skirmishers, but also protect the flanks of the knights and infantry, chasing away enemy light cavalry.
When the battle was fully engaged, they would charge at the enemy flank, shoot a single devastating volley at point-blank range and then attack the enemy with swords, without reloading.
Horse archery was usually ineffective against massed foot archery. The foot archers or crossbowmen could outshoot horse archers and a man alone is a smaller target than a man and a horse.
The Crusaders countered the Turkoman horse archery with their crossbowmen, and Genoese crossbowmen were favoured mercenaries in both Mamluk and Mongol armies.
Likewise the Chinese armies consisted of massed crossbowmen to counter the nomad armies. A nomad army that wanted to engage in an archery exchange with foot archers would itself normally dismount.
The typical Mongol archer shot from a sitting position when dismounted. Another example of combined troops winning against armies mostly of horse archers is the highly successful Han campaign against the mounted Xiongnu nomads.
Well-led Roman troops managed to score crushing defeats against the Parthians, including the Roman—Parthian War of —66 and Trajan's war against Parthia , and succeeded in sacking the Parthian capital on three occasions.
Horse archers were eventually rendered obsolete by the maturity of firearm technology. In the 16th and subsequent centuries, various cavalry forces armed with firearms gradually started appearing.
Because the conventional arquebus and musket were too awkward for a cavalryman to use, lighter weapons such as the carbine had to be developed, which could be effectively used from horseback, much in the same manner as the composite recurve bow presumably developed from earlier bows.
For many armies, mounted archery remained an effective tactical system in open country until the introduction of repeating firearms. By the 18th century, firearms had largely displaced traditional composite bows in Mongolia, whereas in Manchuria horse archery was still highly esteemed.
In the Battle of Khorgos , mounted Mongolian Dzungars troops armed with muskets faced off against Qing Dynasty mounted Manchurian, Mongolian, and Chinese archers armed with Manchu bows.
The battle was won by the Qing forces, and traditional Manchurian archery continued to be practiced in China up to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in During the Napoleonic Wars , the Russian Imperial Army deployed Cossack, Bashkir, and Kalmyk horse archers against Napoleon's forces.
Baron de Marbot writes that on the eve of the Battle of Leipzig , his forces encountered mounted archers:. With much shouting, these barbarians rapidly surrounded our squadrons, against which they launched thousands of arrows which did very little damage because the Baskirs, being entirely irregulars, do not know how to form up in ranks and they go about in a mob like a flock of sheep, with the result that the riders cannot shoot horizontally without wounding or killing their comrades who are in front of them, but shoot their arrows into the air to describe an arc which will allow them to descend on the enemy.
This system does not permit any accurate aim, and nine tenths of the arrows miss their target. Those that do arrive have used up in their ascent the impulse given to them by the bow, and fall only under their own weight, which is very small, so that they do not as a rule inflict any serious injuries.
Although general de Marbot describes the horse archers in disdainful terms, the general was himself wounded in the leg by an enemy arrow, and Baskir troops were amongst the occupying troops in Paris in It has been proposed that firearms began to replace bows in Europe and Russia not because firearms were superior but because they were easier to use and required less practice.
The weapon of choice for Eurasian horse archers was most commonly a composite recurve bow , because it was compact enough to shoot conveniently from a horse while retaining sufficient range and penetrating power.
Staff Favorites. Collection Descriptions University Collection Manuscript Collections Northeast Archive of Folklore and Oral History Maine Collection Digital Collections Maine Newspapers Rare Books University Collection For more information about the University Archive, see our University Archive Research Guide.
University Records The Special Collections Department houses the University Archives and actively collects university records of historical, administrative, or legal value.
University Publications Special Collections has also been a repository for university-related publications of the administration, academic departments, and faculty members.
Dissertations and Theses Print copies of most University of Maine honors theses, masters theses, and doctoral dissertations are located in the Special Collections Department of Fogler Library.
Return to top Manuscript Collections The Special Collections manuscript collection currently houses over 1, cataloged collections which occupy several thousand linear feet of shelf space.
Search the collections: Finding Aids for larger manuscript collections are available online at DigitalCommons UMaine. Subject areas actively collected, along with the disciplines they support, are as follows: Environmental History Includes record of land-use by large land owners e.
The Maine Art and Literary Scene The primary focus is on personal papers and institutional records that provide broad documentation on the creative arts in Maine, rather than just on an individual author or artist.
Gender Studies Includes personal papers of women who are among the first of their gender in a profession in Maine; records of professional organizations in female-dominated professions; selected papers especially diaries that document the lives of women and men who did not have a prominent role in the public sphere; and records of male-only and female-only organizations.
History of Education in Maine Includes selected personal papers of educators, records of professional organizations, records of regional or district school administration, and the archives of the University of Maine.
Politics in Maine Includes records of political organizations, especially those concerned with land-use or environmental issues, and the papers of political figures who exemplify the political scene in Maine or whose papers provide documentation for one of the five areas listed above e.
University Records Special Collections seeks records from administrative and academic departments and student organizations that document the history of the University of Maine.
Return to top State of Maine Collection This collection includes bibliographic, historical, and descriptive works on Maine as well as literary titles by Maine authors.
In addition the collection includes: Early Maine Imprints Pre The library has a number of early Maine imprints that are primarily religious in nature.
Fiction In an effort to build a comprehensive collection, the definitions of Maine authors and Maine books are drawn very broadly.
Maine authors are defined as: Those born in the state no matter how long they may have lived here; Those born elsewhere who lived some part of their life in the state; Residents of other places who regularly summered in Maine.
Maine State Documents The Special Collections Department houses a comprehensive collection of documents issued by the State of Maine.
A brief list of some available documents include: Laws of Maine, Legislative Documents, Public Documents, Maine Revised Statutes Annotated, Maine Reporter, Vol 1.
Highlights from the digital collections include: Bert Call Photographs Bert Call was a professional photographer in Dexter, Maine, from to Fannie Hardy Eckstorm Papers Fannie Hardy Eckstorm was born on June 18, , in Brewer, Maine.
Sanborn Maps of Maine This collection provides digital access to a selection of the fire insurance maps published by the Sanborn Map Company that are housed in the Special Collections Department of Raymond H.
Return to top Rare Books The books in this collection meet one of the following criteria: Published in Western Hemisphere before ; Published outside Western Hemisphere before ; Editions published before limited to copies or less; Editions published after limited to copies or less.